An overview of new progress in stem cell culture manufacturing

    1. Nature Materials: "squeezing" cells into stem cells

    DOI: 10.1038/nmat4536

    Scientists at the EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland, have recently developed a new method to help cells become available stem cells. This approach involves the use of gels to "squeeze" cells, paving the way for large-scale production of stem cells for medical use.

    Stem cells are currently at the forefront of modern medicine. They can be transformed into cells of different organs and are expected to provide new ways to treat a range of injuries and diseases. But producing the right type of stem cells in a standardized way remains a serious challenge. EPEL scientists have developed a gel that enhances the ability of cells to reprogram into stem cells by three-dimensional "squeezing" cell formation. The study, published online November 11, 2016 in the journal Nature Materials. The technique also makes it easy to expand stem cell production and perform a wide range of applications on an industrial scale.

    There are different types of stem cells, among which " induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" are particularly attractive. These stem cells are derived from adult cells of gene reprogramming and appear as stem cells. iPSCs can be regenerated into a range of different cell types, such as liver, pancreas, lung, skin and other cells.

    1. Cell Stem Cell: Developed a method for long-term culture of adult stem cells in vitro

    Doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.05.012

    In a new study, a new method developed by researchers from institutions such as the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) may trigger a revolution in adult stem cell culture. The researchers obtained airway stem cells from various tissue samples that were collected during daily treatment of lung disease and proliferated them. This method also appears to be applicable to several other tissues, such as the skin, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and the reproductive tract. The results of the study were published online June 16, 2016 in the journal Cell Stem Cell, entitled "Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells".

    "This new approach opens up new avenues for the study of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and any other airway disease," said Jayaraj, author of the paper, MGH Reproductive Medicine Center, and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Rajagopal said, “Although we have only been able to allow adult stem cells to proliferate for generations in the past, we are now able to grow enough adult stem cells for experimentation in several laboratories for several years. Our approach is also very simple and avoid the complexity of the previous culture system, which makes it easier for many laboratories to apply."

    1. Nat Commun: Three stem cell manufacturing technologies are proven safe

    Doi:10.1038/ncomms10536

    In a new study, researchers from the Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) confirmed the methods for making clinically used pluripotent stem cells are unlikely to deliver oncogene mutations to patients. The relevant research results were published in the journal Nature Communications on February 19, 2016, and the title of the paper is "Whole-genome mutational burden analysis of three pluripotency induction methods". This study is an important step in assessing the safety of rapidly developing stem cell therapies.

    This study focuses on the safety of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in patients. Because iPSCs are capable of differentiating into any type of cell in the body, they have the potential to repair damage caused by abrasions or diseases such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.

    "We want to know if reprogramming cells makes them prone to mutations," said Jeanne Loring, a professor of TSRI developmental neurobiology who led the new study with Professor Nicholas J. Schork, director of human biology at JCVI. The answer is 'no' "

    1. Nature: Scientists discover new ways to grow hematopoietic stem cells

    DOI: 10.1038/nature17665

    Researchers at the McMaster University's Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute have made significant advances in understanding the stem cells of the human blood system, and they have discovered how a key protein allows these cells to better control and regeneration.

    The study, published in the journal Nature, illustrates how a protein called Musashi-2 regulates the function and development of important hematopoietic stem cells.

    The study found new strategies that can be used to control the growth of these stem cells, which can be used to treat a range of deadly diseases, but they are often in short supply.

    The research's senior author, Kristin Hope, is a Principal Investigator at the Stem Cell and Cancer Institute and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences at McMaster University. Other collaborators include researchers from the University of California, San Diego, the University of Toronto, and the University of Montreal.

    Hope said the findings could have profound effects on thousands of patients suffering from a range of blood diseases, including leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, and sickle cell disease.

    To be continued in Part Three…