Some Key Genes You Should Know About Cancer

  • Genes are all the nucleotide sequences needed to produce a polypeptide chain or functional RNA. Genes support the basic structure and performance of life, and store all the information of life's race, blood type, gestation, growth, apoptosis and other processes. The interdependence of environment and heredity deduces the important physiological processes such as the reproduction of life, cell division and protein synthesis. All life phenomena, such as organism's birth, growth, decline, disease, aging and death, are related to it. It is also an intrinsic factor that determines life and health. Therefore, genes have dual attributes: materiality (mode of being) and informedness (fundamental attribute).

    Genes have two characteristics. One is that they can reproduce themselves faithfully to maintain the basic characteristics of living things. The other, in the reproduction of offspring, genes can be "mutation" and mutation, when the zygote or mother is affected by the environment or genetic, the genome of the offspring will occur harmful defects or mutations. Some diseases, in a particular environment will occur hereditary, also known as genetic diseases. Under normal conditions, life changes on the basis of heredity, and these changes are normal changes.

    Oncogenes are a class of genes that are inherent in human or other animal cells (as well as oncoviruses). They are also called transformed genes, which, when activated, can promote the carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis of normal cells. The ways of oncogene activation include point mutation, gene amplification, chromosome rearrangement, virus infection and so on. The result of its activation is an increase in its number or function, which leads to excessive cell proliferation and other malignant characteristics, thus forming malignant tumors.

    1. STC2

    Recent studies have found that STC2 expression is significantly increased in gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, liver cancer and other malignant tumors. Although the mechanism of action in the tumor is still unclear, it can play a role in promoting growth, proliferation, invasion and metastasis in a variety of tumors. Dr Paul Huang, head of the proteomics team at cancer research institute London´╝îpointed out that the active status of F12 and STC2 genes was closely related to the mortality of breast cancer patients. Female cancer patients with high activity of F12 gene and low activity of STC2 gene had a 32% probability of dying within 10 years, while those with low activity of F12 gene and high activity of STC2 gene had a 10% probability of dying within 10 years. The biological characteristics and mechanism of STC2 gene in breast cancer have not been clearly studied.

    1. SRC

    SRC is a proto-oncogene and a member of the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase family. Abnormal SRC expression and activity often cause the occurrence and development of some cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. The relationship between its expression and breast cancer was first found in mice, and studies in cell lines further showed that SRC gene plays an important role in the growth of breast cancer cells. The role of human proto-oncogene SRC in cancer development remains unclear, mainly because human cancer SRC mutations are rare and wild-type SRC is less pathogenic.

    1. SKP2

    SKP2 was first cloned from human fibroblasts by Zhang et al in 1995. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that Skp2 gene was located in the 5pl3 region of human chromosome, with a total length of 31962bp. SKP2, a protein product encoded by the SKP2 gene, is composed of 436 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 45kD, hence the name p45. The SKP2 gene could be a new target for treating cancer, forcing cancer cells to age, stop dividing and die by blocking its activity, researchers at the university of Texas M.D. Anderson cancer center and memorial Sloan Kettering cancer center reported in the journal nature. Improved understanding of the SKP2 gene and its association with cell aging could lead to the development of novel drug agents that inhibit tumor development in a variety of common cancers.

    1. RAD51

    RAD51 gene, as a DNA repair gene, plays a key role in maintaining gene stability. RAD51 gene mutation plays an important role in the occurrence and development of various tumors. Tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy drugs was also associated with its mutation. In addition, Rad51 gene may interact with other genes to jointly influence the occurrence and development of tumors.

    1. PLAC1

    PLAC1(placenta-specific 1 gene) has the characteristics of cancer-testis antigen (CT), which can be expressed in various tumor tissues, but hardly in normal tissues (except placenta and testis). PLAC1 encodes a membrane protein that has certain immunogenicity and can cause humoral and cellular immunity in tumor patients. The current results show that PLAC1 represents a new class of tumor-related antigen, which may be a target of tumor immunotherapy.