Introduction to Three Types of Cell Culture

  • Cell culture refers to a method that simulates the internal environment (sterile, appropriate temperature, pH, and certain nutritional conditions, etc.) in vitro to make it survive, grow, reproduce and maintain its main structure and function.

    There are three types of cell culture.

    Animal cell culture

    In all cell culture in vitro, the difficulty is animal cell culture. The following are the special conditions it requires.

    (1) Serum: Animal cell culture in vitro often requires serum. Commonly used is calf serum. Serum provides essential growth factors, such as hormones, trace elements, minerals and fats. Here, serum is equivalent to a natural nutrient solution for in vitro culture of animal cells.

    (2) Support: Most animal cells have the habit of growing adherently. In vitro culture often uses glass, plastic, etc. as supports.

    (3) Gas exchange: The ratio of carbon dioxide and oxygen must be continuously adjusted during the cell culture process to continuously maintain the required gas conditions.

    Plant cell culture

    Light: Plant cells cultured in vitro are not very strict with light conditions, because the materials needed for cell growth are mainly supplied by the medium. However, illumination is not only related to photosynthesis, but also related to cell differentiation. For example, photoperiod can regulate sex cell differentiation and flowering. Therefore, light conditions are particularly important in the early plant cell culture process for the purpose of obtaining plants. In the process of obtaining important substances, such as drugs, by in vitro cultivation of plant cells, most plant cells are cultured in suspension in a reactor.

    Hormones: The division and growth of plant cells require the regulation of plant hormones. Growth-promoting auxins and mitogens that promote cell division are basic hormones. The division, growth, differentiation and individual growth cycle of plant cells are regulated by corresponding hormones. Compared with animal cells, the principle of hormone requirements for plant cell culture in vitro has been understood, and its application technology has been quite mature, and there is already a set of culture media that can be used. At the same time, it solves the needs of plant cells for water, nutrients, hormones, osmotic pressure, pH, and trace elements.

    Microbial cell culture

    Microorganisms are mostly single-celled organisms, and the wild living conditions are relatively simple. Therefore, the conditions for artificial culture of microorganisms are much simpler than that of animal and plant cells. Among them, anaerobic microorganism cultivation is more complicated than aerobic microorganisms, because strict anaerobic needs to maintain the concentration of non-oxygen inert gas such as carbon dioxide, while aerobic microorganisms only need to provide sterile oxygen through constant stirring. Microorganisms have less stringent requirements for culture conditions than animal and plant cells. Corn steep liquor, peptone, wort, yeast extract, etc. have become good natural culture media for microorganisms. For the nutritional requirements of some special microorganisms, it can be added on the basis of these natural media.

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