Overview about Endocrinology

  • Internal secretion is the corresponding word for exocrine, named by C·Bermard (1859), which refers to the phenomenon that substances produced by body tissues are directly secreted into blood (body fluids) without passing through a catheter.

    It includes 4 concepts: 1) endocrine; 2) endocrine system; 3) the abbreviation of "endocrine disorder"; 4) the abbreviation of "endocrine system disease".

    1) Endocrinology is a life science term; the phenomenon that substances produced by body tissues are directly secreted in blood (body fluids) without passing through a catheter. That is: the secretory cell directly enters the hormone produced by the body fluid, and the body fluid is used as a medium to produce an effect on the target cell.

    2) The endocrine system refers to a large system of the body fluid regulation system composed of all the endocrine glands and hormones (the secretions of the endocrine glands) in the body, and it is closely related to the central nervous system.

    3) Endocrine disorders often refer specifically to female endocrine disorders, and female patients account for the vast majority.

    4) Endocrine system diseases: both men and women can see it, such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.



    As far as physiological phenomena are concerned, when ordinary people discuss endocrine, most of them no longer refer to physiological phenomena, but generally refer to glands. The glands that carry out endocrine are called endocrine glands, and their endocrines are called hormones. Hormones have a wide range of influences, involving the growth, development, adaptation to the environment, and stress of the body. Endocrine phenomena are common in humans or other higher animals.

    As far as the endocrine system is concerned, it is closely related, closely coordinated, and interacts with the central nervous system in terms of physiological functions.

    In addition, the endocrine system indirectly or directly accepts the regulation of the central nervous system, and the endocrine system can also be regarded as a part of the central nervous system. The internal glandular system also affects the activities of the central nervous system. Therefore, with the development of time, the discipline that specializes in the functional connection between the central nervous system and the endocrine system is called neuroendocrinology. Endocrine disorders, which can also be called endocrine disorders, are common to both men and women, but the symptoms are more obvious in women, which can easily cause concern and corresponding prevention and treatment. Endocrine system diseases are obviously closely related to the organs or glands and hormone levels included in the endocrine system.





    The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones;

    (1) Form

    The thyroid is "H" shaped, divided into left and right lobes and isthmus.

    (Two) location

    The thyroid is located on both sides of the larynx and trachea, and the thyroid isthmus is located in front of the cartilage rings of the second to fourth trachea. It can move up and down with the throat when swallowing.


    Parathyroid glands

    (1) Form

    The parathyroid glands are brownish-yellow flat oval bodies, one pair on top and bottom.

    (Two) location

    The parathyroid glands are located at the posterior edge of the lobes on both sides of the thyroid gland and can be embedded in their parenchyma.


    Adrenal glands

    The adrenal glands secrete adrenal hormones and so on.

    (1) Morphology The adrenal glands resemble a half moon on the left and a triangle on the right.

    (Two) location

    The adrenal glands are located at the upper ends of the left and right kidneys, and are enclosed in the renal fascia together with the kidneys.



    The pituitary gland secretes growth hormone and so on.

    (1) Position and shape The pituitary gland is located in the pituitary fossa and is oval in shape.

    (2) Division


    1. Adenohypophysis

    Located in the anterior part of the pituitary gland, including the distal part, the nodular part and the middle part.


    2. Neuropituitary

    Located at the back of the pituitary gland, including nerves and funnels.


    Other endocrine glands/organs

    Pancreatic islets, adrenal glands, thymus, gonads, diffuse neuroendocrine system.


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