Main ingredients of Electrolytes part-2

  • Ethylene carbonate

    Molecular formula: C3H4O3

    Transparent colorless liquid (>35℃), crystalline solid at room temperature. Boiling point: 248°C/760mmHg, 243-244°C/740mmHg; flash point: 160°C; density: 1.3218; refractive index: 1.4158 (50°C); melting point: 35-38°C; this product is polyacrylonitrile, polyvinyl chloride A good solvent. It can be used as a spinning liquid in textiles; it can also be directly used as a solvent for removing acid gases and an additive in concrete; it can be used as a pharmaceutical component and raw material in medicine; it can also be used as a plastic foaming agent and a synthetic lubricant Stabilizer; in the battery industry, it can be used as an excellent solvent for lithium battery electrolyte

     

    Propylene carbonate

    Molecular formula: C4H6O3

    Colorless, odorless, or light yellow transparent liquid, soluble in water and carbon tetrachloride, miscible with ether, acetone, benzene, etc. It is an excellent polar solvent. This product is mainly used in polymer operations, gas separation processes and electrochemistry. In particular, it is used to absorb carbon dioxide from natural gas and synthetic ammonia raw materials in petrochemical plants. It can also be used as a plasticizer, spinning solvent, olefin and aromatic extraction agent, etc.

    Toxicological data: No poisoning was found in animal experiments by oral or skin contact. Rat oral LD50=2,9000 mg/kg.

    This product should be stored in a cool, ventilated, dry place, away from fire, and stored and transported in accordance with the regulations of general low-toxic chemicals.

     

    Diethyl carbonate

    Colorless liquid with slight odor; vapor pressure 1.33kPa/23.8℃; flash point 25℃; melting point -43℃; boiling point 125.8℃; solubility: insoluble in water, miscible with alcohol, ketone, ester and many other organic solvents ; Density: relative density (water = 1) 1.0; relative density (air = 1) 4.07; stability: stable; hazard mark 7 (flammable liquid); main purpose: used as a solvent and used in organic synthesis

    ①Health hazards

    Invasion route: inhalation, ingestion, transdermal absorption.

    Health hazards: This product is a mild irritant and anesthetic. After inhalation, it can cause headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, and difficulty breathing. Liquid or high-concentration vapor is irritating. Oral irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. Long-term repeated contact with the skin is irritating.

    ②Toxicological information and environmental behavior

    Toxicity: It is estimated that it can enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract, skin and respiratory tract, showing moderate toxicity. It is more irritating than dimethyl carbonate.

    Acute toxicity: LD501570mg/kg (rat oral); human inhalation of 20mg/L (vapor) × 10 minutes, tearing and nasal mucosal irritation.

    Reproductive toxicity: 11.4mg/kg in the abdominal cavity of hamsters (pregnant rats), which has obvious teratogenic effects.

    Hazardous characteristics: flammable, and may cause burning when exposed to open flames and high heat. Its vapor is heavier than air and can spread to a considerable distance in a lower place, and it will cause backflame in case of an open flame.

    Combustion (decomposition) products: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide.

    ③Leak emergency treatment

    Quickly evacuate personnel from the contaminated area to a safe area, isolate them, and strictly restrict access. Cut off the fire source. It is recommended that emergency personnel wear self-contained positive pressure breathing apparatus and fire protective clothing. Cut off the source of leakage as much as possible. Prevent entry into restricted spaces such as sewers and flood drains. Small leakage: absorb with or other inert materials. It can also be scrubbed with an emulsion made of a non-flammable dispersant, and the lotion is diluted and put into the waste water system. A large number of leaks: build a dike or dig a pit for storage. Cover with foam to reduce steam hazards. Use explosion-proof pump to transfer to tank truck or special collector, recycle or transport to waste disposal site for disposal.

    ④Protection measures

    Respiratory protection: When the concentration in the air is high, it is recommended to wear a self-priming filter gas mask (half mask).

    Eye protection: wear safety glasses.

    Body protection: wear anti-static overalls.

    Hand protection: wear rubber gloves.

    Others: Smoking is strictly prohibited at the work site. After work, take a shower and change clothes. Pay attention to personal hygiene.

    ⑤First aid measures

    Skin contact: Take off contaminated clothing and wash skin thoroughly with soap and water.

    Eye contact: Lift the eyelid and rinse with running water or normal saline. Seek medical attention.

    Inhalation: quickly leave the scene to a place with fresh air. Keep the airway unobstructed. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If breathing stops, give artificial respiration immediately. Seek medical attention.

    Ingestion: Drink enough warm water, induce vomiting, and seek medical attention.

    Fire fighting method: spray water to cool the container, and if possible, move the container from the fire scene to an open place. Extinguishing agent: foam, dry powder, carbon dioxide, sandy soil.

     

    Dimethyl carbonate

    (dimethyl carbonate, DMC) is a non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and versatile chemical raw material. It is an important organic synthesis intermediate. Its molecular structure contains functional groups such as carbonyl, methyl and methoxy groups. Multiple reaction properties, safe to use, convenient, less pollution, easy to transport, etc. in production. Due to its low toxicity, dimethyl carbonate is a "green" chemical product with development prospects.

    DMC has excellent solubility, its melting and boiling point range is narrow, the surface tension is large, the viscosity is low, the dielectric constant of the medium is small, and it has a higher evaporation temperature and a faster evaporation speed, so it can be used as a low-toxic solvent for coatings. Industrial and pharmaceutical industries. It can be seen from Table 1 that DMC is not only low in toxicity, but also has the characteristics of high flash point, low vapor pressure and high lower explosion limit in the air, so it is a green solvent that combines cleanliness and safety.

     

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