Coronavirus outbreaks-experimental antiviral drugs

  • Researchers have found that experimental antiviral drugs can fight the new coronavirus, which is expected to resist future coronavirus outbreaks.

     

     

     

    Introduction: Recently, scientists published a paper titled "SARS-CoV-2 infection is effectively treated and prevented by EIDD-2801" in the journal Nature, which tested how the experimental drug EIDD-2801 was administered orally The new model prevents SARS-CoV-2 from replicating and prevents it from infecting human lung tissue.

    All over the world, the number of new COVID-19 cases continues to increase, especially in the United States with the highest incidence.

    The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants are more transmissible, which brings more challenges to vaccine treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent global need for alternative therapies and prevention methods that can be implemented comprehensively and quickly to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death related to COVID-19 that occur in nursing homes and other occasions that require long-term care.

    Recently, scientists published a paper titled "SARS-CoV-2 infection is effectively treated and prevented by EIDD-2801" in the journal Nature. The researchers tested how the experimental drug EIDD-2801 was administered orally. The new model prevents SARS-CoV-2 from replicating and prevents it from infecting human lung tissue.

     

    Although several highly effective vaccines have been approved for the treatment of COVID-19, due to the production, transportation, storage and distribution of the vaccine and public acceptance, it will take a lot of time to reach the target vaccination level required for herd immunity.

    After evaluating the safety of EIDD-2801 to humans and its impact on virus shedding in COVID-19 patients, researchers found that the drug is very effective and can prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. The drug is currently in phase 2 and phase 3. Clinical Trials.

    Mouse models can be used to study highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, but human coronaviruses will not replicate in mice unless researchers change the virus, genetically modify the mice, or introduce a single human receptor gene into the mice in order to Viruses can infect cells. This mouse model prevents the scientific community from understanding the progression of coronavirus infections because these models do not have human lung tissue cells.

    Scientists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) have found a solution to this problem, so that this series of mice have human lung tissue. Immunodeficient mice implanted in human lung tissue (LoM) can replicate SARS-CoV-2, which leads to infection, showing several characteristics of early diffuse lung injury in patients with COVID-19. In addition, acute SARS-CoV-2 infection also causes a strong and persistent type I interferon and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine response.

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of EIDD-2801 against COVID-19, researchers administered EIDD-2801 to LoM 24 hours or 48 hours after SARS-CoV-2 exposure and every 12 hours thereafter.

    “We found that EIDD-2801 treatment had a significant impact on virus replication after only two days. When treatment started 24 hours after exposure, the number of infectious particles in human lung tissue was significantly reduced by more than 25,000 times,” International Translational Science Development Said Dr. J. Victor Garcia, director of the center. "When treatment was started 48 hours after exposure, the virus titer was significantly reduced by 96%."

    Next, the researchers administered the drug 12 hours before SARS-CoV-2 exposure and every 12 hours thereafter to test the ability of EIDD-2801 to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    Professor Angela Wahl, Assistant Director of the International Center for Translational Science Development, said: “We found that exposure to EIDD-2801 can significantly inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, and the virus titer in human lung tissue is reduced by more than 100,000 times. "

    Professor Gralinski said: "Research shows that bat endogenous coronaviruses can effectively replicate in human lung tissue without any adaptation to the virus. This confirms that bats can directly infect humans without further adaptation of the virus."

    Professor Ralph Baric said: “Previously, we have also demonstrated that EIDD-2801 is also effective against SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections in vivo and in human main respiratory epithelial cultures. Overall, these research results show that EIDD-2801 is not only It can effectively treat and prevent COVID-19, and it can also effectively resist future coronavirus outbreaks."

     

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